Neural Network Evaluation Tool on Crossbar-based Accelerator with Resistive Memory
Zhezhi He, Jie Lin, Rickard Ewetz, Jiann-Shiun Yuan and Deliang Fan, “Noise Injection Adaption: End-to-End ReRAM Crossbar Non-ideal Effect Adaption for Neural Network Mapping,” Design Automation Conference (DAC), June 2-6, 2019, Las Vegas, NV, USA [pdf]
We investigate various non-ideal effects (Stuck-At-Fault (SAF), IR-drop, thermal noise, shot noise, and random telegraph noise)of ReRAM crossbar when employing it as a dot-product engine for deep neural network (DNN) acceleration. In order to examine the impacts of those non-ideal effects, we first develop a comprehensive framework called PytorX based on main-stream DNN pytorch framework. PytorX could perform end-to-end training, mapping, and evaluation for crossbar-based neural network accelerator, considering all above discussed non-ideal effects of ReRAM crossbar together. Experiments based on PytorX show that directly mapping the trained large scale DNN into crossbar without considering these non-ideal effects could lead to a complete system malfunction (i.e., equal to random guess) when the neural network goes deeper and wider. In particular, to address SAF side effects, we propose a digital SAF error correction algorithm to compensate for crossbar output errors, which only needs one-time profiling to achieve almost no system accuracy degradation. Then, to overcome IR drop effects, we propose a Noise Injection Adaption (NIA) methodology by incorporating statistics of current shift caused by IR drop in each crossbar as stochastic noise to DNN training algorithm, which could efficiently regularize DNN model to make it intrinsically adaptive to non-ideal ReRAM crossbar. It is a one-time training method without the request of retraining for every specific crossbar. Optimizing system operating frequency could easily take care of rest non-ideal effects. Various experiments on different DNNs using image recognition application are conducted to show the efficacy of our proposed methodology.